[:en]Since the beginnings of agriculture, a long time ago, man has used different methods to control pests and diseases that affect crops. Chemical agents have been widely used in an effort to obtain healthy crops.
However, the development of resistance to these products by pests, growing consumer concern for food safety and environmental contamination, together with continued restrictions on the use of chemical products, have prompted a review of practices. current.
In addition, and given that in a short time we will face the enormous challenges of the 21st century, feeding more than 9,000 million people, guaranteeing maximum food security and increasing agricultural production by 70% in the next 50 years, it becomes more that it is never necessary to innovate and differentiate, for this reason, we highlight the importance that the concept of Induced Systemic Resistance (ISR, for its acronym in English).
Induced resistance in plants includes mechanisms such as cell death and/or changes in cell wall composition that inhibit pathogen penetration. Following these local responses, plants produce certain compounds in response to attack by pests and pathogens.
It is now well known that plants activate defense systems in response to a potential pathogen or its products. The idea of controlling diseases using the resistance mechanisms of plants has aroused growing interest in the development of agents that mimic natural resistance inducers. These agents are known as activators.
The resistance induced by these agents is broad-spectrum but they rarely completely control the infection; most activators offer control between 20 and 80%
However, the continuing increase in evidence supporting the role of triggers in disease control offers farmers a powerful tool to incorporate into Integrated Pest Management programs and reduce the amount of pesticides and fungicides used.
In the last 20 years, numerous investigations have provided valuable information on induced resistance in crops, but equally, much remains to be understood. Although some cases of specificity have been described, the phenomenon of resistance is generally broad-spectrum. Most studies have been performed in a limited number of species, differences in biochemical pathways exist, and efficacy between various forms of resistance has yet to be investigated in detail. However, Induced systemic resistance (ISR) is a widespread phenomenon and a conserved trait in both Monocots and Dicots.
In the field, the expression of induced resistance is probably influenced by the environment, genotype and nutrition. To maximize the effectiveness of resistance activators, a greater understanding of the interplay between these factors will be necessary. Likewise, it will be very important to define how resistance activators can be included in disease control strategies, because they are not and should not be considered simply as “safe fungicides”. This, in turn, requires further research on the interaction of resistance activators with crop practices, especially the time and dose of application, and the response time of the crop to trigger defense mechanisms.
In the words of Ms. Trinidad Reyes Arribas, PhD (Alltech Crop Science Consultant, Spain), disease control in crops faces the biggest challenges in the 21st century with continually increasing fungicide resistance problems and pressure to reduce chemicals used.
On the other hand, the consumer shows more and more not only a great concern for safe food, but also for the environment and the extensive use of chemical products. In this context, and taking into account the vast amount of information available, heThe resistance induced by biotic activators should be considered in any Integrated Crop Management program.
> For more information, see the attached file «A summary of the Induced Systemic Resistance (ISR) as a defense plant mechanism against pathogens and the role of elicitors in an Integrated Crop Management Program» by Trinidad Reyes, MSc, PhD. Alltech Crop Science Consultant – Spain[:]